Ground steels are obtained through the use of machines called grinding machines that perform the grinding process, which is the set of operations obtained through abrasion exerted by a grinding wheel. The rotational speed of the grinding wheel, which is composed of abrasive material, enables it to subtract a moderate amount of material from the surface of the part to be machined with considerable precision.
Because of these characteristics, grinding is a very precise but expensive process, making it suitable only for parts that require a high surface finish (such as, for example, bearing seats and gear profiles).
Machining of ground steels
In industry, there are numerous types of mechanical grinding, which differ based on the surfaces machined, the movement performed by the grinding wheel, and the type of machinery used. Generally speaking, grinding operations generate grooves, threads and profiles of various kinds, thanks in part to the use of CNC machines.
Grinding processes fall into three categories:
- Cylindrical grinding: grinding in this case takes place with the axis of rotation of the grinding wheel parallel to that of the workpiece. Since the workpiece is also rotating, it’s possible to process only cylindrical or conical parts, both on their inside or outside. Inside refers to when the grinding wheel machines the inside of a hole concentric to the workpiece itself; likewise, we refer to outside when machining is done on the surface farthest from the center.
- Centerless grinding: through this grinding process it is possible to precisely machine parts of small diameter and very long lengths. Positioning of the machined part is achieved thanks to the opposition of two grinding wheels. Centerless grinding allows for high precision on cylindrical parts of small dimensions and on parts with variable geometry.
- Plane grinding: plane grinding works with the axis of rotation of the grinding wheel perpendicular to the movement of the work table. In contrast to the previous types of grinding, the workpiece is not rotating. Therefore, flat surfaces with high surface finishes (flatness and roughness) are obtained. Flat grinding can be carried out with the grinding wheel in two different positions relative to the workpiece: tangential grinding and face grinding.
Stainless steel machinability requires knowledge of some of their special characteristics and requirements, due to the features of the different alloys and the structural changes that can occur during its processing and machining.
Thanks to their characteristics, precision ground steels are an excellent means of supporting construction and semi-finished products.